What Is Yoga?

Yoga Means Union

Although many people think between body and mind or body, mind and spirit, the traditional acceptance is union between the Jivatman and Paramatman that is between one’s individual consciousness and the Universal Consciousness.

Therefore Yoga refers to a certain state of consciousness as well as to methods that help one reach that goal or state of union with the divine.The 5 points of Yoga

There are hundreds or more of such techniques and therefore as many different Yoga’s. In order to simplify and clarify the topic, Swami vishu-devenanda summarized the vast science of Yoga into 5 principles of Yoga, which are easy to understand and to include in one’s daily life. These five points are: proper Exercise, Proper breathing, Proper Relaxations, Proper Diet And Positive thinking & Meditation.The Four Paths of Yoga

The various Yogic practices have been traditionally classified into the four Margas (paths). These four paths are:

  • Jnana Yoga or Jnana Marga which is the Yoga of wisdom and develops the Intellect or will
  • Bhakti Yoga, the Yoga of devotion, opens the heart
  • Karma Yoga, the path of action of selfless service.
  • Raja yoga, the royal or psychological which involves the mind. A branch of Raja Yoga which is Hatha Yoga which prepares the Yogi for the higher stages of Raja Yoga.


Sarvangasana, the Sanskrit name for the Shoulder stand, comes from the word “sarva”, meaning whole. This Asana strengthens your entire body; it gives many of the benefits of the Headstand, but here the circulation is directed to your thyroid gland instead of the head.

Objective: To stretch your cervical and thoracic regions.Step 1 – Legs in the air

Before beginning the Shoulder stand, make sure that there is enough room behind you. You must be able to stretch your arms out behind your head and have at least 30 cm (1 ft) between your fingertips and any obstructions. Lie flat on your back, with your feet together. Inhale while bringing your legs up to a right angle.Step 2 – Moving Up

Tuck your hands under your buttocks, with your fingers pointing toward your spine. Then, as you exhale, gently raise your body by letting your hands walk down your back and push you into position.Step 3 – In Balance

Continue to move your hands up your back until you rest on your shoulders. Breathe normally, and keep your legs straight. Hold for 30 seconds; as the pose becomes easier, increase the time to 3 minutes. To come down, drop your feet halfway to the floor behind your head. Put your hands on the floor. Unroll your body vertebra by vertebra to the floor. Hand position: Put your hands on the small of your back, with your fingers toward your spine.Variation

Inhale with your hands on your back. Exhale and bring one foot to the floor behind your head. Inhale. Raise your leg. Swap sides.SHIRSASANA OR HEADSTAND

Known as the “King of Asanas” because of its many benefits, the Headstand is the first of the 12 asanas and is considered by many to be a panacea for countless human ills. Sitting and standing for most of the day causes your circulation to become sluggish, so your heart has to work harder to pump sufficient blood to the upper parts of your body. Normally, your heart works against gravity; inverting your entire body lessens the strain on your heart, and allows a plentiful supply of oxygen-rich blood to reach your head and brain. This pose is not an advanced asana; even so, to begin with you may wish just to undertake the child’s Pose and the Dolphin, progressing to the full Headstand later.

The Dolphin strengthens your upper body in preparation for the Headstand. Sit on your heels. Lay your elbows on the grounds, level with your shoulders, and position your arms as shown. Straighten your knees and stand on your toes. Rock your body back and forth. Do 4 rounds of 10 rocks, relaxing in between.

Step 1 – Arms & Hands

Sit up on your heels, then catch hold of both your elbows with the opposite hands. Lean forward and lay your forearms on the ground, directly beneath your shoulders. Let go of your elbows, and clasp your hands together.Step 2 – Head Down

With your arms in the tripod position, above right, lower your head so that the top of your skull touches the ground and the back of it is cradled in your hands. Do not make any abrupt movements. Take the next steps slowly.Step 3 – On Your Toes

From the crouched position with your head resting in your hands, straighten your knees and push your hips up above your head. Then, keeping your legs straight, stretch up high on your toes.Step 4 – Half Headstand

Now bend your knees, bringing them to your chest. Arch your back slightly, as you do when standing up; this will enable you to balance your body in this position. Do not proceed unless you can hold this position for at least 30 seconds without feeling any discomfort.Step 5 – Knees Up

With your knees still bent, start to straighten your hips. Slowly and carefully, raise your knees until they are pointing straight up toward the ceiling.Step 6 – All the Way

Straighten you knees and lift your feet up toward the ceiling. Support your weight by bracing your elbows against the ground. At first, hold the Headstand for 30 seconds; as you become more skilled at adopting this pose, gradually increase the time to 3 minutes. Always come down before you start to feel tired. Leave the pose slowly and under control (see below). Head in Hands: Rest the back of your head against your hands. Relax, breathing through your nose.Coming out

You should leave this Asana as carefully as you entered it. Do not move jerkily or quickly, or you may lose control and fall.

  • Bend your knees and lower them.
  • Straighten your legs. Bring your feet to the ground, and then lower your knees.
  • Lower your body so that your buttocks rest on your heels as in the Child’s Pose.
  • Finally, relax your hands and return to the full Child’s Pose.
  • Do not lift your head up straight away. Rest for at least a minute.
  • Relax in the Corpse before continuing


Step 1 – Legs Over

In the Plough, your body is bent forward; this stretches your entire spine, particularly your cervical vertebrae and shoulders. Come up into a Shoulder stand, and inhale deeply. Exhale while lowering your feet to the floor behind your head.Step 2 – Legs Down

Rest your toes on the floor, then lay your arms down flat. Hold for 30 seconds at first, but aim to build up to 2 minutes. If you cannot lower your feet all the way, keep your hands on your back for support. To come out, lift your feet off the floor, and slowly roll down. Relax in the Corpse.Plough Variation

You may try this variation if you are supple enough. Once in the Plough, lower your knees to the floor by your ears. Hook your arms over your legs. To come out, straighten your knees, then roll down as described above.PASHCHIMOTTANASAN OR FORWARD BAND


Stretching your spine forward

The Forward Bend looks, and is, simple – provided you relax into the position, rather than forcing yourself into it. The pose is one of the most powerful and important Asanas, helping to ease the spinal compression caused by standing upright. Its practice contributes greatly toward keeping your back supple, your joints mobile, your nervous system invigorated, and your internal organs toned.Objective:

To stretch the back of your body Starting

To stretch the back of your bodyStarting

Inhale, bringing both arms up by your ears. Stretch your spine up. Lean forward from your hips, and try to catch hold of your toes. Keep your spine and legs straight. Exhale into the pose; feel your body stretch. Hold for 30 seconds, then inhale and stretch upward again. Repeat twice. Clasp Position: If you are not able to reach your toes, clasp your ankles, shins, or knees, to hold the position comfortably.Inclined Plane

The Inclined Plane is the counterpose to the Forward Bend. It complements the forward stretch that your body is given in the previous pose, and increase the strength and flexibility of your arm. In this Asana your hips are pushed upward, and your body is held straight and balanced on your hands and feet.

From the starting position, sitting with the hands flat on the floor behind the hips, with the fingers pointing back, let your head drop back. Next, inhale as you raise your hips. Hold the pose for about 10 seconds. Lower your body, then relax your hands by shaking your wrists.THE BHUJANGASANA OR COBRA

step 1 – Face Down

Lie on your front. When you are fully relaxed, begin to come into the cobra. Still lying on your front, place your hands flat on the floor so that they are directly underneath your shoulders. Next lift your head up a little and bend your neck, then lower your forehead to the ground.Step 2 – Roll Up

Inhale, slowly rolling up and back. First bring your forehead up so that your nose rests on the floor, then continue rolling up and back. Move slowly, so that you feel each vertebra arching back.Step 3 – Hold

Hold the pose for 10 to 60 seconds. Slowly roll down, keeping your head back until last. As you do the cobra, make sure you are not overextending the lower back. No pain should be felt in the lower back. You may want to repeat it two more times.The Advanced Cobra – Variations

Once you are proficient in the above steps, you can attempt some variations.Autosuggestion

  • In the cobra, turn your head to look over your right shoulder, trying to see your left heel. Hold for about 10 seconds, then return your head to the center and repeat while looking over the other shoulder.
  • From the starting position, lift your hands off the ground and roll your body up using only your back muscles.
  • Always return to a resting position on your abdomen after these poses.
  • With practice you may be able to attempt the “King cobra” variation in which your feet touch your head.



A lateral stretch for your entire spine

After bending forward and back, your spine requires a lateral twist to retain its mobility. This ability to twist is often the first type of flexibility to be lost. During the Spiral Twists your vertebrae are mobilized; the exercises also allow more nourishment to reach the roots of the spinal nerves and the sympathetic nevous system.Objective:

To maintain sideways mobility in your spineStep 1 – Legs Bent

Sit up on your heels. Drop your buttocks to the floor, to the left of your legs.Step 2 – Leg Position

Bend your right leg. Cross your right foot over your left leg, and place it on the floor by the outside of your left knee. Keeping your arm straight, put your right hand flat on the floor behind your back. Arms: Lay your right hand on the floor. Raise your left arm straight up.Step 3 – The Twist

Lower your left arm, bringing it outside your bent knee, then grasp your right ankle. Hold for at least 30 seconds. Repeat, twisting the other way.SHALABHASANA OR LOCUST

Step 1 – Face Down

Lie on your front. Rest your chin on the ground, then move it forward as much as you can, so that your throat lies almost flat. Put your arms by your sides, then push your hands under your body, and make them into fists or clasp them together. Bring your elbows as close together as possible.Step 2 – Half locust

Inhale as you lift one leg. Hold this position for at least 10 seconds, then exhale while lowering your leg and repeat the pose with your other leg. Practice it 3 times on each side. Chin position: The further forward you push your chin, the more your spine can stretch and the more you will gain from this asana.Step 3 – Full Locust

Lie with your chin out, as in the Half Locust, then take 3 deep breaths. On the third, lift both legs off the ground. They may not come up far at first, but with practice you may be able to lift them much higher. Hold for as long as you can, then lower your feet. Repeat twice and then relax.Up and Up:

With practice, you will be able to raise your legs higher. Eventually, you may even be able to lift your body vertically.The Advanced locust

This more difficult pose must be attempted only by experienced students of yoga. The aim, in the advanced asana, is to raise your feet straight up and then lower them over your head. This backward bend compresses your vertebrae while stretching the front of your body to its greatest extent. The strength and flexibility necessary for this pose will eventually develop with regular practice.THE DHANURASAN OR THE BOW POSE


Balancing on your abdomen, in the shape of a bow.

The Bow works all parts of your back simultaneously. In this asana, your head, chest, and legs are lifted, while your body rests on your abdomen. The pose is so named because as you hold it, your body is bent back like a bow and your arms are held straight and taut like a bowstring. Initially, you may wish to attempt only the first 3 steps, moving on to the Rocking Bow when you have become more confident and lithe.Frontal Corpse

Before and after all asanas you must relax for as long as necessary. The position that you adopt for relaxing between back bends is a variation on the Corpse Pose, in which you lie on your front. Like all Corpse variations, this pose prepares you mentally and physically for performing an asana. Head on hands: Your hands make a pillow on which you can rest your head as you relax in this position. Feet: Position your feet with your big toes together; let your heels and ankles fall gently out to either side.Step 1 – Catch Hold

To begin, lie on your front with your forehead on the ground. Now bend your knees and catch hold of your ankles. Make sure that you do grasp your ankles rather than the top of your feet or your toes. Keep your feet relaxed.Step 2 – Lift Up

Inhale, raising your head, chest, and legs. Straighten your knees. Hold for 10 seconds, aiming to increase to 30. Breathe as you hold the pose. Exhale, and lower your body. Repeat 3 times.Rocking Bow

For this exercise, come into the Bow, arching as high as you can. Keep your head back and gently rock, using your breath to propel your body. Exhale as you rock forward, and inhale as you rock back. Do not forget to relax in the Corpse Pose on your front after you have completed this movement. Grip: Hold your ankles firmly as you rock.

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