Download Free e-books
Books & CDs
Home >> Kidney Disease

Kidney Failure

Information about Kidney Disease

Hypertensive Kidney Failure

Blood pressure can cause kidney failure, blood pressure readings are measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and usually given as 2 numbers. For example, 140 over 90 (written as 140/90).
Read More
The top number is your systolic pressure, the pressure created when your heart beats. It is considered high if it is consistently over 140.

The bottom number is your diastolic pressure, the pressure inside blood vessels when the heart is at rest. It is considered high if it is consistently over 90.

Either or both of these numbers may be too high.

Pre-hypertension is when your systolic blood pressure is between 120 and 139 or your diastolic blood pressure is between 80 and 89 on multiple readings. If you have pre-hypertension, you are more likely to develop high blood pressure at some point.

Alternative Names
High blood pressure; HBP; Blood pressure - high cause hypertension

Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Blood pressure measurements are the result of the force of the blood produced by the heart and the size and condition of the arteries.

Many factors can affect blood pressure, including how much water and salt you have in your body, the condition of your kidneys, nervous system, or blood vessels, and the levels of different body hormones.

High blood pressure can affect all types of people. You have a higher risk of high blood pressure if you have a family history of the disease. High blood pressure is more common in African Americans than Caucasians.

Most of the time, no cause is identified. This is called essential hypertension.

High blood pressure that results from a specific condition, habit, or medication is called secondary hypertension. Too much salt in your diet can lead to high blood pressure. Secondary hypertension may also be due to:
  • Kidney failure
  • Alcohol poisoning Renal artery stenosis
  • Adrenal gland tumor
  • Anxitety and stress Renal vascular obstructions or narrowing
  • Appetite suppressants Migraine medicines
  • Arteriosclerosis Hemolytic-uremic syndrome
  • Birth control pills Obesity
  • Certain cold medicines Pain
  • Coarctation of the aorta Periarteritis nodosa
  • Cocaine use Radiation enteritis
  • Cushing syndrome Renal artery stenosis
  • Diabetes Retroperitonial fibrosis
  • Kidney disease, including: Wilms’ tumor
  • Glomerulonephrities Pregnancy
  • Inflammation of kidneys) (called gestational hypertension)


Most of the time, there are no symptoms. Symptoms that may occur include:
  • Confusion Vision changes
  • Chest pain Tiredness
  • Ear noise or buzzing Nosebleed
  • Irregular heartbeat

If you have a severe headache or any of the symptoms above, see your doctor right away. This may be a signs of a complication or dangerously high blood pressure called malignant hypertension.

Signs and tests
Your health care provider will perform a physicalexam and check your blood pressure. If the measurement is high, your doctor may think you have hypertension. The measurements need to be repeated over time, so that the diagnosis can be confirmed.

If you monitor your blood pressure at home, you may be asked the following questions:
  • What was your most recent blood pressure reading?
  • What was the previous blood pressure reading?
  • What is the average systolic (top number) and diastolic (bottom number)?
  • Has your blood pressure increased recently?

Other tests may be done to look for blood in urine or heart failure. Your doctor will look for signs of complications to your heart, kidneys, eyes, and other organs in your body.

These tests may include:
  • Echocardiogram
  • Urinalysis
  • X-ray of kidney

Treatment :
  • Complications Heart attack
  • Aortic dissection Hypertensive heart disease
  • Blood vessel damage Brain damage Stroke
  • Congestive heart failure Vision loss
  • Kidney Damage Calling your health care provider
  • Kidney failure

If you have high blood pressure, you will have regularly scheduled appointments with your doctor.

Even if you have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure, it is important to have your blood pressure checked during your yearly check-up, especially if someone in your family has or had high blood pressure.

Call your health care provider right away if home monitoring shows that your blood pressure remains high or you have any of the following symptoms:
  • Chest pain Severe headache
  • Confusion Shortness of breath
  • Excessive tiredness Significant sweating
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Vision changes

Lifestyle changes may help control your blood pressure:
  • Lose weight if you are overweight. Excess weight adds to strain on the heart. In some cases, weight loss may be the only treatment needed.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Eat a healthy diet. Eat less fat and sodium. Salt, MSG, and baking soda all contain sodium. Eat more fruits, vegetables, and fiber.
  • Avoid smoking.
  • If you have diabetes, keep your blood sugar under control.
  • Follow your health care provider's recommendations to modify, treat, or control possible causes of secondary hypertension.

Acute Renal Failure [A.R.F] Cure Homeopathy

Definition: Nephritis is inflammation of the kidney.

Description: The most prevalent form of acute nephritis is glomerulonephritis. This condition affects children and teenagers far more often than it affects adults. It is inflammation of the glomeruli, or small round filters located in the kidney. Plelonephritis affects adults more than children, and is recognized as inflammation of the kidney and upper urinary tract. A third type of nephritis is heredetory nephritis, a rare inherited condition.
Read More
Causes and symptoms: Acute glomerulonephritis usually develops a few weeks after a strep infection of the throat or skin. Symptoms of glomerulonephritis includefatique, high blood pressure, and swelling. Swelling is most notable in the hands, feet, ankles and face. Pyelonephritis usually occurs suddenly, and the acute form of this disease is more common in adult women. The most common cause of this form of bacterial nephritis is the backward flow of infected urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract. Its symptoms include fever and chills, fatigue, burning or frequent urination, cloudy or bloody urine, and aching pain on one of both sides of the lower back or abdomen. Hereditary nephritis can be present at birth. The rare disease presents in many different forms and can be responsible for up to 5% of end -stage renal disease in men.

Diagnosis of nephritis is based on:
  • The patient's symptoms and medical history
  • Physical examination
  • Laboratory tests

Kidney function tests
Imaging studies such as ultrasound or x rays to determine blockage and inflammation

Urinysis can reveal the presence of:
  • Albumin and other proteins
  • Red and white blood cells
  • Pus, blood, or bacteria in the urine
  • Treatment

Alternative treatment
Alternative treatment of nephritis should be used as a complement to medical care and under the supervision of a licensed practitioner. Some herbs thought to relieve symptoms of nephritis include cleavers (Galium spp.) and wild hydrangea.

Prognosis for most cases of glomerulonephritis is generally good. Ninety percent of children recover without complications. With proper medical treatment, symptoms usually subside within a few weeks, or at the most, a few months.

Pyelonephritis in the acute form offers a good prognosis if diagnosed and treated early. Follow-up urinalysis studies will determine if the patient remains bacteria-free. If the infection is not cured or continues to recur, it can lead to serious complications .(bacterial invasion of the bloodstream), hypertension, chronic pyelonephritis and even permanent kidney damage.

If hereditary nephritis is not detected or treated, it can lead to complications such as eye problems,defness o or kidney failure.

Streptococcal infections that may lead to glomerulonephritis can be prevented by avoiding exposure to strep infection and obtaining prompt medical treatment for scarlet fever or other infection.

Pyelonephritis can best be avoided if those with a history of urinary tract infections take care to drink plenty of fluids, urinate frequently, and practice good hygiene following urination.

Hereditary nephritis can not be prevented, but research to combat the disease continues.

Chronic Renal Failure (C.R.F.) Cure

The state of patient with end stage renal failure or progressive reversible chronic renal disease is very pathetic not only for the patient itself but also for the family and society as a whole.
Read More
The individualised homoeopathic therapeutic modality considering the patients psychological presentation is very important. Homoeopathy does wonders here and has prevented a large number of cases progressing to Hemodialysis and Renal Transplant.

The usual presentation of C.R.F. in Homeopathic hospital includes:

1. Patients with just diminished renal reserve.
2. Patient with End Stage Renal Failure pending Hemodialysis and Renal Transplant.
3. Patient already on long term Dialysis pending Renal Transplant.
4. Post Renal Transplant Patients.

1. Patients with just diminished renal reserves:
This is the best field for us to work but unfortunately, the number of cases presenting at this stage are very few. The individualised homoeopathic treatment does wonders here and have prevented a large number of cases progressing to stage of dialysis or renal transplant.

The usual symptomatic presentation at this stage is vague with patients mostly complaining of nausea, anorexia and progressive weakness. The laboratory renal parameters are also not very seriously disturbed. The evolution of individualised totality comprising of the mental sphere, habits, past and family history require lots of patience and labor but the results are marvellous.

Homoeopathy has already done a yoeman service to the society here as hemodialysis and renal transplant are not within easy reach of majority of population in under- developed countries.

2. Patients with end-stage chronic renal failure pending Hemodialysis & Renal Transplant:
This is the group of cases with maximum presentations in the clinics. Majority of these cases come to homoeopathic rescue as a last resort as they can't afford long-term dialysis and transplant.

The other small group of patients want to know the benefits of Homoeopathic treatment over dialysis and if Homoeopathic treatment be carried along with Hemodialysis? The clinical judgment is individualized and varies for every patient. Remember the correlation of uremic symptoms with renal functions varies front patient to patient.

3. Patients already on long-term hemodialysis pending renal transplant:
Homeopathy has a great role to play here. Research experiments in various hospitals reveals the following facts :

(a) Indicated homoeopathic remedies reduced the number of dialysis needed over a period of time.
(b) Indicated homoeopathic remedies reduce and overcome the complications associated with chronic dialysis therapy.

Complications of dialysis & its Homeopathic Management
Remember a chronic dialysis patient depends on a machine for his life. These patients develop a variety of psychiatric, neurologic and somatic disorders. A neurologic disorder 'Dialysis dementia' is a characteristic example.

In the mental sphere, these patients become very depressive, their reduced physical abilities make them sad and depressive They become very irritable like They know that they have to depend on others, they tolerate and do not express the frustration like In the physical sphere infections, thrombosis and aneurysm formation occur in the Arterio-venous fistula. There is a high incidence of septic embolisation in these cases. The homoeopathic remedies Arnica, have immensely helped these cases.

Heparin necessary during the hemodialysis procedures to prevent clotting leads to complications such as subdural hematoma and intracerebral hemorrhage. Arnica and different well-proved snake poisons in our Materia Medica are of great help here...

4. Post Renal Transplant Patients:
The group of patients coming for homoeopathic advice after Renal Transplant is very limited. Homeopaths have very little experience with these patients and the results are not very encouraging. Most of the symptoms here are marked and distorted by immune-suppressive therapy. Immuno-suppressive therapy suppresses all immune responses and hence Homoeopathic treatment has not much role to play in organ rejection of transplant cases...

We have observed that those cases with renal failure, being put on Dialysis and if they receive homoeopathy medication simultaneously, they require less frequent dialysis and their quality of life improves.

Albuminuria or Protenuria or Nephrotic Syndrome

Definition Nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms including protein in the urine (more than 3.5 grams per day), low blood protein levels, high cholestrol levels, and swelling. The urine may also contain fat, which can be seen under the microscope.
Read More
Alternative Names
  • Nephritis

Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Nephrotic syndrome is caused by various disorders that damage the kidneys, particularly the basement membrane of the glomerulus. This immediately causes abnormal excretion of protein in the urine.

The most common cause in children is minimal change Disease, while membranous glomerulonephritis is the most common cause in adults.

This condition can also occur as a result of infection, use of certain drugs,caner, genetic disorders, immue disorders, or diseases that affect multiple body systems including diabetes, multiple myeloma, and amyloidosis.

It can accompany kidney disorders such as glomerulonephritis, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, and mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis.

Nephrotic syndrome can affect all age groups. In children, it is most common from age 2 to 6. This disorder occurs slightly more often in males than females.

  • Swelling (edema) Facial swelling
  • General Foamy appearance of the urine
  • Around the eyes Weight gain from fluid retention
  • Swollen adbomen Poor appetite
  • In the extremities, especially the feet and ankles
  • High blood pressure

Signs and tests
Physical examination can detect some symptoms. Other symptoms and signs of causative disorders can also be found with examination.

Urinalysis reveals large amounts of urine protein. Fats are often also present in the urine.

Tests to rule out various causes may include the following:
  • Glucose tolerance test Hepatitis B and C antibodies
  • Antinuclear antibody VDRL serology
  • Rheumatoid factor Serum protein electrophoresis
  • Cryoglobulins Kidney bopsy
  • Complement levels

This disease may also alter the results of the following tests:
  • Urinary casts Serum iron
  • Triglyceride Cholesterol
  • Protein electrophoresis urine Albumin

Treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome Homeopathy

The homeopathic approach to treat Nephrotic Syndrome: It should be emphasized that homoeopathy treats patient who is diseased and not the disease, which the patient has.The basic approach in homeopathy is to evaluate the disease of Nephrotic Syndrome in its whole extent, whereby a lot of emphasis is given to the patient as a whole besides minutely studying various aspects of the Nephrotic Syndrome.
Read More
The homeopathic approach is to enhance body's own healing capacity so that the all deviations of immune system are brought back to normal.

Constitutional approach As per the classical homeopathy, we believe in constitutional prescribing. Every case of chronic renal disease calls for study of the patient's constitution, which includes various aspects of his physical ailments as well as the in-depth study of the mental sphere, such as emotions, psychosocial background, and behavior and personality pattern. This calls for individual case study in every case of Nephrotic Syndrome. There is no single specific remedy for all the cases of Nephrotic Syndrome. The exact treatment is determined only on in-depth evaluation of individual case. Furthermore, patient's history of past diseases and that of the family diseases is understood to know the miasmatic background of the patient.

Role of homoeopathic medicines After putting all the vital information together, and fine evaluation process carried out, an individualist medicine is determined. This constitutional medicine, which when administered in the correct dose treats the patient at an inner level and brings about harmony at the constitutional level. In a situation, where kidney damage has progressed too far, homoeopathy prevents further progress of disease and freezes deterioration of the condition in future.

Important conclusion from these research on nephritic syndrome : Homoeopathy is very effective in all stages and variants of Nephrotic Syndrome. It may be taken along with traditional medicines prescribed by physician. It helps to reduce (and eventually to stop) the dose of conventional medicines for Nephrotic Syndrome, once the improvement sets in. However, withdrawal of the medicine should be done slowly and under supervision of local physician. It helps arrest further progress of disease and hence deterioration caused by disease.

If administered in early stage it prevents complications like renal failure associated with disease thus minimizing need of dialysis or transplant. Even if the patient is undergoing dialysis, it will help to reduce frequency and in certain cases abolishes need of dialysis. It is absolutely safe, harmless, and non-toxic. It does not interfere with other medicines.

The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications and delay progressive kidney damage. Treatment of the causative disorder is necessary to control nephrotic syndrome. Treatment may be required for life.

Complications Atherosclerosis and related heart disease Renal vein thrombosis Acute renal failur Chronic renal failure Infections, including pneumococcal pneumonia Malnutrition Fluid overload, congestive heart failure, pulmonary edma Prevention Treatment of causative disorders may prevent development of nephrotic syndrome.

Common Disease of Urenary Track Disease

Common kidney complaints Diseases associated with kidney and urinary tract have become very common all over the world. Millions of people have one or the other kidney disease. There is a long list of diseases associated with kidneys and urinary tract but common complaints are:
Read More
A. Kidney stone
B. Bladder stone
C. Burning of urethra before, during or after maturation (very common)
D. Passing blood with urine (hematuria)
E. Urinary incontinence

Scanty or suppressed urine Passing of urine almost drop by drop due to obstruction in urinary tract Pain and heaviness in the region of kidneys even without stones High colored urine, or urine with sediments


Kidney stones or Renal calculi, are solid pieces of material that forms in the kidney out of substances in the urine. They are composed mostly of calcium oxalate. A stone may stay in the kidney or break loose and travel down the urinary tract. It is a painful condition.

Different types of kidney stones occur in different parts of the world, and dietary factors probably play a part in determining the varying patterns. There are four major types of kidney stones. The most common type of stone contains calcium. A struvite stone may form after an infection in the urinary system. These stones contain the mineral magnesium and the waste product ammonia. A uric acid stone may form when there is too much acid in the urine. If you tend to form uric acid stones, you may need to cut back on the amount of meat you eat. Cystine stones are rare. Cystine is one of the building blocks that make up muscles, nerves, and other parts of the body. Cystine can build up in the urine to form a stone. The disease that causes cystine stones runs in families.

Signs of Kidney Stones The most common complaint arising from kidney stone (Renal Calculus; Plural - Calculi) is intermittent dull pain in the loin or back, increased by movement. Sometimes this pain is very severe. Following may be the other complaints:
  • Extreme pain in back or side
  • Blood in urine
  • Fever and chills
  • Vomiting
  • A burning feeling when you urinate

Causes of Kidney Stones Infection or obstruction may play a part in kidney stone formation. Sometimes they occur when the level of blood calcium is abnormally high. Occasionally, stones may develop when the blood level of uric acid is too high, usually from over consumption of meat. Excessive dietary intake of calcium and oxalate and low fluid intake have also been associated with formation of stones. In most cases, however the cause is not known. It has been found that certain persons are having a tendency of forming recurrent urinary stones. Even after treating successfully once, they tend to form stones again and again.

Homeopathic Treatment of Kidney Stones Kidney Stones, acute as well as chronic, can be effectively treated with Homeopathic Medicines. Homeopathic treatment can avoid surgery in many cases. It is highly recommended in cases where tendency of having recurrent stones is there. Patient's case history is studied in detail and a well selected homeopathic medicine is given which removes this tendency from patient's body so that he does not have any more stones again. It has especially proved very helpful in cases of stones where surgery or other procedure is not advisable due to various reasons. All homeopathic medicines are safe, natural, easy to administer and without any adverse effects. If you have any specific question about your condition, please to ask.

Prevention of any more Kidney Stones Kidney Stones can be prevented by drinking more water. Try to drink 12 full glasses of water a day. Drinking lots of water helps to flush away the substances that form stones in the kidneys. If you have a uric acid stone, eat less meat, because meat breaks down to make uric acid. Calcium and other salts, which tend to collect at urethral exit of bladder, causing frequent urge to urinate, pain as urine is passed, and blood in urine due to irritation of bladder lining; Alternatively, the bladder is opened surgically and the stones sucked out.


Bladder and kidney stones are much less common now than 30years ago; they are slightly commoner in men who have had a vasectomy; however, both conditions are related to concentration of urine by high rates of perspiration. To prevent recurrence, constitutional homeopathic treatment is recommended Stuck or only gradually works its way down to the bladder, the result is renal colic, waves of severe stabbing or cramping pain which abate when the stone stops moving; pain follows the route of the urinary track A stone is stuck in a ureter, blocking the flow of urine, surgery may be necessary. To prevent recurrence, constitutional homeopathic treatment should be sought. A kidney with a stone in it is vulnerable to infection in a few cases, scarring from large stones leads to Kidney failure.

More inquiry should write to

High specific gravity urine
There can be many causes of the disease. Diabetes, high blood pressure, hepatitis, infection, incorrect or over medication and injury are the most common causes. Obstruction of urinary passage in men could be due to enlargement of the prostate but this does not fall in the category of kidney diseases.


Hematuria is the condition in which blood comes with the urine. Minor hematuria may not be visible with naked eye but examination under a microscope shows a high number of RBCs. Gross hematuria, when the urine is red can be seen with the naked eye. Hematuria may be caused due to many reasons. One of the causes is when the calculus (stone) moves through the narrow urinary tract, its sharp edges may bruise the walls of the tract and cause bleeding, which appears in the urine. In such cases the pain becomes very severe. Whenever color of the urine become red, one should consult the doctor. Homeopathic medicines can quickly relieve this condition.


This complaint is quite common. Burning can occur before, during or after passing the urine. In certain cases burning can occur in all the three conditions. While there can be other reasons, usual cause is infection and inflammation of the urinary tract. This condition is not difficult to treat if it occurs in isolation and has not yet become chronic. With correct medication, it should clear off in few days unless there are other complications associated with it. Chronic condition will take some time to resolve but should not take several weeks.


Urination can be due to weakness of the pelvic floor or prolepses of the uterus leakage of urine when sneezing, coughing, laughing, running, lifting things, etc., with dragging pain between legs (sudden uncontrollable urge to urinate), and urgency and frequency, dribbling after flow has stopped, bladder and urethral infections (urgency, frequency, scalding pain on passing urine, having to get up in night or the result of injury to kidney, bladder and urethra. Lower abdominal surgery can also cause temporary loss of control. Urinary incontinence can also be a part of Senile dementia. It may also occur during an epileptic fit). Suitable homeopathic remedies are listed under each of the conditions mentioned above.

If loss of control is accompanied by sudden weakness, confusion, dizziness, numbness, paralysis or great heaviness in any part of the body, blurred vision, slurred or difficult speech, or loss of consciousness.

Treatment of Homeopathy

AMMONIUM CARB: Heaviness in all organs, swelling of glands, acid reactions; prostration; frequent desire to urinate with tenesmus; urine white, scanty, bloody copious turbid and fetid.
Read More
ARSENIC ALB: Urine is scanty, burning involuntary. Bladder as if paralyzed. Albuminuria. Nephritis. Uremia. Atony of bladder in old persons. Epithelial cells cylindrical clots of fibrin and globules of pus and blood. Feeling of weakness in abdomen after urination. Retention of urine, as if the bladder were paralyzed after childbirth. Urine black as if mixed with dung. Dysuria.

AURUM MET: Painful retention of urine, with urgent inclination to make water, and pressure on the bladder. Frequent emission of watery urine. Urine turbid, like buttermilk, with thick mucus-like sediment.

CICUTA: Frequent micturition; the urine is propelled with great force. Retention of urine. Convulsions with violent distortion of body.

CUPRUM MET: Suppression of urine. Passes clear watery urine during or after spasms. Urgent desire to urinate with scanty emission. Frequent emission of fetid, viscid urine, Burning shootings in the urethra, during and subsequent to the emission of urine. Wetting the bed at night.

CUPRUM ARS: Diabetes. Kidney inefficiency and uremia. Garlic odor of urine. Urine of high specific gravity increased, Contains acetones and diacetic acid.

GLONOINE: Increased secretion of pale (albuminous) urine; has to rise frequently during the night, and must pass large quantities of albuminous urine. Tubal nephritis, with headache, brought on by walking in the sun; numbness in arms and hands alternating with intense tingling. Inclination to deep respiration.

OPIUM: Scanty, deep coloured (dark brown) urine, with sediment like brick dust. Retention of urine. Coma. Insomnia. Intermittent respiration.

PHOSPHORUS: Urine turbid, brown, with red sediment. Uremia with acute atrophy of brain. PICRIC ACID: Complete anuria, nephritis with profound weakness.

PLATINA: Red urine with a white cloud, or else which becomes turbid, and deposits red sediment. Slow but frequent emission of urine.

TEREBINTHINA: Pressure in the kidneys when sitting, going off during motion. Sensation of heaviness and pain in region of kidneys. Transient movement in region of bladder during stool as if bladder were suddenly distended and bent forward. Frequent desire to urinate. Violent burning drawing pain in region of kidneys. Spasms from any attempt to urinate. Suppressed secretion of urine. Urine smelling strongly of violets; deposit of mucus, or thick, muddy deposit. Thick, slimy, yellowish white sediment in urine. Much blood with very little urine and constant painful Dysuria. Burning sensation, incisive pains, and spasmodic tenesmus of bladder.

C.R.F OR Chronic Glomerular Nephritis - Ritesh Kakale, India.

I was suffering from Chronic Glomerular Nephritis for 4 years. The albumin in urine was 3+. The creatinine level was fluctuating between 5 and 10. The blood urea was fluctuating between 50 and 80. I was loosing flesh day by day and became weak. I consulted many Urologists. I was given steroids and was finally asked to go on dialysis.
Read More
Seeing the experience of my other friends who had similar problems, I was reluctant to go for it. In the meantime I decided to try Dr. Harshad Raval MD Homeopathic treatment. With his treatment, the creatinine and urea levels came down drastically. The albumin is now in traces. Creatinine level is 1.9. Blood urea is below 20. All this happened without steroids. The Hb level which had gone down to 6.7% has now reached above 11%. I am feeling much better. The edema on the body has considerably reduced. I don't look pale as before. I feel much energetic and able to work long hours in teaching profession. I am really thankful to DrRaval remedial approach to kidney problems.

Side-effects of complementary and alternative medicine Complementary and alternative medicine are increasingly used to diagnose or treat renal diseases, and numerous studies have reported benefits of this type of medicine. But have its own on risks.The potential sensitizing capacity of numerous herbal remedies may lead to allergic contact dermatitis and more rarely to IgE-mediated clinical symptoms. Organ toxicity has been observed associated with various herbal preparations involving the liver, kidneys, and the heart. Some herbs may have cancerogenic properties. Severe nutritional deficiencies can occur in infants and small children given strict alternative diets, resembling 'kwashiorkor'. The pattern of side-effects is similar to that observed by the use of conventional medicine. Therefore, caution may be justified using both conventional and unconventional methods. Only if the benefit is proven and the side-effects are established, should a given method be chosen.

Renal Failure and Dialysis In certain patients levels of Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and Creatinine may rise and reach dangerous limits due to various reasons. This happens when the kidneys do not filter out the toxins which condition is called renal failure. It may be due to functional or structural changes of the kidney tissues. When BUN and Creatinine rise to a certain limit, dialysis is carried out, which is a procedure in which the blood is cleansed of toxins through an outside machine, replacing work that the kidneys normally do. Dialysis is done primarily to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. Decision to carry out dialysis depends on many factors.

Normal levels of Creatinine in the blood are approximately 0.6 to 1.2 milligrams (mg) per deciliter (dl) in adult males and 0.5 to 1.1 milligrams per deciliter in adult females. The normal range for BUN is 7 to 20 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). At certain places it is mentioned as 7 - 25 mg/dl for adults.

Homeopathy has the medicines that can considerably and quick correct the functional problems and reduce the levels of BUN and Creatinine to normal but if structural changes have taken place in the kidney tissues, medicines alone may no longer be very effective. In such conditions, dialysis is the likely treatment that would need to be repeated at suitable interval